the fourth space

those spaces in between life, thinking, the physical world, and humanity

Ralph Tyler’s View

Book: Tyler, Basic Principals of Curriculum and Instruction

My Summary of his ideas in connection to the arts: 

  1. the responsibility of the arts to other subjects
  2. the major functions of the arts and how they uniquely apply to general education
  3. Contributions of the arts to major areas of human relationships
  4. How the arts relieve tensions in other areas through expression

Tyler Quotes:

  1. “the particular contributions that a subject can make to the large educational functions, that may not be thought of as unique functions of the subject itself.” (i.e. the contributions that science can make in each of the major areas of human relationships- personal living, personal health, self assurance, satisfying the world picture….)
  2. the ways science [but substitute the word art for the word science]  “…can be taught to encourage reflective thinking and to develop other characteristics of personality such as creative thinking, aesthetic appreciation, tolerance, social sensitivity, self-direction.  Critics have questioned the depths of contributions that science might make on a number of these points, but it is clear that these suggestions are useful in indicating possible objectives that a school might wish to aim at…”
  3. “specific contributions these subjects might make to areas that are not uniquely the responsibility of these subjects.”
  4. “also the more specific contributions that the subject might make to other major functions that one is able to infer objectives from the reports of subject specialists.”
  5. Major functions of a subject and how it might serve general education: “function of art in extending the range of perception of the student…and thus get a type of perception he is not likely to obtain in any other way…A second function proposed for art is the clarification of ideas and feelings through providing another medium for communication in addition to verbal media.”
  6. “This refers to the contribution art has sometimes made to the relieving of tensions through symbolic expression.”
  7. “A fourth function is the development of interests and values.  It is maintained that aesthetic values are important both as interesting qualities  for the student and also as expressing very significant life values in the same category with the highest ultimate value of life.”



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This entry was posted on February 5, 2013 by .
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